| Home | Article Database | Resources | Tools & Just for Fun | Search HY |
A Consumer's Guide to Mental Health Services
Q. When I need help, where can I go?
A. For information about resources available in your community, contact your
local mental health center or one of the local affiliates of national organizations
listed in the back of this pamphlet. These agencies can provide you with
information on services designed to meet the needs of people with mental
disorders such as depression, schizophrenia, panic disorder, and other anxiety
conditions. In addition, they will have information regarding services designed for
specific cultural groups, children, the elderly, HIV-infected individuals, and
Q. I don't have adequate personal finances, medical insurance, or
hospitalization coverage--where would I get the money to pay for the
services I may need?
A. In publicly funded mental health centers, such as those funded by State, city or
county governments, the cost of many services is calculated according to what
you can afford to pay. So, if you have no money, or very little, services are still
provided. This is called a sliding-scale or sliding-fee basis of payment.
Many employers make assistance programs available to their employees, often
without charge. These programs--usually called Employee Assistance
Programs--are designed to provide mental health services, including individual
psychotherapy, family counseling, and assistance with problems of drug and
Q. Are there other places to go for help?
A. Yes, there are alternatives. Many mental health programs operate
independently. These include local clinics, family service agencies, mental health
self-help groups, private psychiatric hospitals, private clinics, and private
practitioners. If you go to a private clinic or practitioner, you will pay the full cost
of the services, less the amount paid by your insurer or some other payment
There are also many self-help organizations that operate drop-in centers and
sponsor gatherings for group discussions to deal with problems associated with
bereavement, suicide, depression, anxiety, phobias, panic disorder,
obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, drugs, alcohol, eating disorders
(bulimia, anorexia nervosa, obesity), spouse and child abuse, sexual abuse, rape,
and coping with the problems of aging parents--to name a few. In addition, there
are private practitioners who specialize in treating one or more of these problems.
You may contact local chapters of organizations listed in the back of this pamphlet
to learn about various services available in your community.
Q. I don't like to bother other people with my problems. Wouldn't it be
better just to wait and work things out by myself?
A. That's like having a toothache and not going to the dentist. The results are the
same--you keep on hurting and the problem will probably get worse.
Q. Suppose I decide to go ahead and visit a mental health center. What
goes on in one of those places?
A. specially trained staff member will talk with you about the things that are
Q. Talk? I can talk to a friend for free--why pay someone?
A. You're quite right. If you have a wise and understanding friend who is willing to
listen to your problems, you may not need professional help at all. But often that's
not enough. You may need a professionally trained person to help you uncover
what's really bothering you. Your friend probably does not have the skills to do
Q. How can just talking make problems disappear?
A. When you're talking to someone who has professional training and has helped
many others with problems similar to yours, that person is able to see the patterns
in your life that have led to your unhappiness. In therapy, the job is to help you
recognize those patterns--and you may try to change them. There may be times,
however, when you will need a combination of "talk" therapy and medication.
Q. Are psychiatrists the only ones who can help?
A. No. A therapist does not have to be a psychiatrist. Many psychologists, social
workers, nurses, mental health counselors, and others have been specially trained
and licensed to work effectively with people's mental and emotional difficulties.
Psychiatrists are medical doctors and can prescribe medication.
Q. Since I work all day, it would be hard to go to a center during regular
working hours. Are centers open at night or on weekends?
A. Often centers offer night or weekend appointments. Just contact the center for
an appointment, which may be set up for a time that is convenient for both you
and the center.
Q. And how about therapists in private practice-do they sometimes see
their patients after working hours?
A. Many therapists have evening hours to accommodate their patients. Some
even see patients very early in the morning.
Q. I feel that I would be helped by going to a mental health center.
Actually, I think my spouse could be helped too. But the idea of going to a
"mental health center" would seem threatening to my spouse. Could I just
pretend that it's something else?
A. No indeed. It's better to talk your spouse into it than to lie. Don't jeopardize
trust by being deceptive. However, you may want to discuss it first with the
center. Marital or family therapy is available when a problem exists that involves
more than one family member.
Q. If I go to a mental health center, what kind of treatment will I get?
A. There are many kinds of treatment. A professional at the center will work with
you in determining the best form for your needs. Depending on the nature of the
illness being treated, psychotherapy and/or treatment with medication may be
recommended. Sometimes, joining a group of people who have similar problems
is best; at other times, talking individually to a therapist is the answer.
Q. Does talking therapy for mental and emotional problems always work?
A. Sometimes it does, and sometimes it doesn't. It primarily depends on you and
the therapist. It is important to share your concerns in a serious, sincere, and open
manner. Only if you are completely honest and open can you expect to receive
the best support and advice.
Q. What if I really try, but I still can't feel comfortable with the therapist?
A. There should be a "fit" between your personality and that of the therapist.
Someone else--or some other method--may be more suitable for you. You can
ask your therapist for a referral to another mental health professional, or, if you
prefer, you can call one of the associations listed in this booklet for the names of
other therapists in your area.
Q. What if I am receiving medication and don't think it is helping?
A. If there is little or no change in your symptoms after 5 to 6 weeks, a different
medication may he tried. Some people respond better to one medication than
another. Some people also are helped by combining treatment with medications
and another form of therapy.
Q. Does a mental health center provide services for children?
A. Yes. Children's services are an important part of any center's program.
Children usually respond very well to short-term help if they are not suffering from
a severe disorder. Families often are asked to participate and are consulted if the
child is found to have a serious disorder- such as autism, childhood depression,
obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or
anorexia nervosa or bulimia--and long-term treatment is needed.
Q. I have an elderly parent who has trouble remembering even close
members of the family. He is physically still quite active and has
wandered off a number of times. Could someone help with this?
A. staff person at a center can advise you about ways you can best care for your
parent. You may be referred to a special agency or organization that provides
services designed especially to meet the needs of elderly people. The department
of public welfare in your county can give you addresses and telephone numbers
for both your county and State agencies on aging. These agencies provide
information on services and programs for the elderly.
Q. I have a friend who says she could use some professional help, but she
is worried about keeping it confidential.
A. She needn't worry. Confidentiality is basic to therapy, and the patient has the
right to control access to information about her treatment. Professional association
guidelines plus Federal and State laws underscore the importance of
confidentiality in therapist-client relationships and govern the release of records.
Some insurance companies require certain information from the therapist as a
condition for payment, but that information can be released only if the patient
gives written permission. If your friend wants to know exactly who gets
information and what kind of information is released, she should ask her insurance
provider and discuss it in detail with the therapist.
Q. I have a relative with a severe mental problem. Should I urge this
person to go to the hospital?
A. A person who is mentally ill should be in a hospital only if it is absolutely
necessary. In general, most mental health professionals believe that persons with
mental illness should live in the community and be treated there. That's why mental
health centers and community support and rehabilitation programs stress the
importance of having many different services available: day, night, and weekend
care, and outpatient treatment through regular visits to an office or clinic.
Q. Do emergency cases wind up as long-term patients in mental hospitals?
A. Generally no. Mental hospitals are used today for short-term crisis intervention
when there are no other community services available or when a person needs
extra care to stabilize a drug treatment regimen. Also they serve the small
percentage of patients who need long-term, structured, supervised care and
treatment in a protective setting.
Q. I have heard people use the term "involuntary commitment." What
does this mean?
A. In an emergency (for example, where a person is considered a danger to self
or others), it is possible for someone to be admitted to a hospital for a short
period against his or her will. The exact procedures that must be followed vary
from one area to another, according to State and local laws. At the end of the
emergency commitment period, the State must release the individual, obtain his or
her voluntary consent to extend commitment, or file with the court an extended
commitment petition to continue to detain the person involuntarily. Most States
require an emergency commitment hearing to be held within 2 to 4 days after
hospital admission to justify continued involuntary confinement.
Q. Whom can I call if I feel that my rights have been violated or if I want
to report suspected violation of rights, abuse, or neglect?
A. Federal law provides that each State have a Protection and Advocacy (P&A)
System. These agencies, partially funded by the Center for Mental Health
Services, investigate reports of abuse and neglect in public or private mental
health or treatment facilities for current residents or those admitted or discharged
during the past 90 days. For the name of the P&A agency in your State, contact
the National Association of Protection and Advocacy Systems at the address
listed in the back of this brochure.
Many people are not sure how to judge when professional help for mental
problems may be needed. There are some behaviors that may be signs of trouble:
- Is the person acting differently than usual? Could this change be linked to
something that has happened recently? Any event, such as the death of a
close relative, loss of a job, marital break-up, or even something
positive--like a job promotion--can trigger a troublesome emotional
- Does the person complain of episodes of extreme, almost uncontrollable,
anxiety or "nervousness"? One sign of an emotional problem is "free
floating" anxiety that is unrelated to a normal concern, such as a child's
illness or a backlog of bills.
- Does the person become aggressive, rude, and abusive over minor
incidents or talk about groups or individuals "out to get me"? If such
remarks are made in all seriousness, and if violent behavior occurs, it is
likely that help is needed and should be sought.
Any of these symptoms, if they persist or become severe, may suggest a need for
professional help. Fortunately, early identification and treatment of the problems
causing this behavior often can make these symptoms disappear.
What to Do in Emergency Situations
If a person becomes violent, gets completely out of control, or tries to commit
suicide, there are several things to do:
- In a dangerous or violent crisis, call the police. Often the police are the
best equipped, most available resource, especially when violence has
occurred or when there is a strong possibility that the person may do
physical injury to self or others. Once the emergency situation has been
'brought under control, if the troubled individual is already in treatment, call
his or her therapist.
- In a nonviolent crisis, contacting other resources may be the best choice.
For example, if an individual hasn't eaten for a substantial period of time
and has become weak and dehydrated, call his or her physician or
therapist. If the person doesn't have one, get him or her to a hospital
emergency room where doctors are on duty--even if you have to call an
ambulance to get there. Look in the Yellow Pages under "Ambulances," or
call the fire department or rescue squad. Look under the list of emergency
numbers in the front of your phone book, or call the operator if you can't
find a number in a hurry. They also may be able to provide temporary help
for an emotional problem, even if they are not mental health specialists. In
addition, they will be able to tell you where and how to get further help. If
the person in crisis is a member of a church, synagogue, or temple, you
may choose to call the minister, priest, or rabbi. Many members of the
clergy are trained to deal with emergencies, or they can refer you to other
sources of help.
You may choose to call a mental health or crisis hotline, drug hotline, suicide
prevention center, "free clinic," or Alcoholics Anonymous chapter, if your area has
such services. Their telephones are often staffed around the clock. Look for a
number in the list of emergency or community service numbers in the front of your
phone book, or you can find a listing in the white pages under "Suicide,"" Mental
Health," "Alcoholics Anonymous," or ask the operator for help.
Another option is to call the nearest mental health center. If it's not listed that way
in the phone book, look under "Hospitals," "Mental Health Clinics," or
"Physicians" ihttp://www.mhsource.com/n the Yellow Pages. Mental health centers generally provide a wide
range of services. Included http://www.mhsource.com/in these are:
- 24-hour emergency service--available at hospitals or other mental health
clinics any time of the day or night.
- Outpatient care--a person goes to the center's clinic for treatment that has
been set up on a regular appointment basis.
- Inpatient service--a person stays at the hospital where care is provided.
- Partial hospitalization--a person might spend occasional days, nights, or
weekends at the hospital center, living at home and going to work as much
- Consutation, education, and prevention services--assist schools,
community organizations, institutions, and businesses in dealing with
persons with mental illnesses and in developing programs that help in the
understanding and prevention of emotional disorders.
The goals of treatment are to reduce symptoms of emotional disorders; improve
personal and social functioning; develop and strengthen coping skills; and promote
behaviors that make a person's life better. Biomedical therapy, psychotherapy,
and behavioral therapy are basic approaches to treatment that may help a person
overcome problems. There are many types of therapies that may be used alone or
in various combinations.
Treatment with medications has benefited many patients with emotional,
behavioral, and mental disorders and is often combined with other therapy. The
medication that a psychiatrist or other physician prescribes depends on the nature
of the illness being treated as well as on an assessment of the patient's general
medical condition. During the past 35 years, many psychotherapeutic medications
have been developed and have made dramatic changes in the treatment of mental
disorders. Today there are specific medications to alleviate the symptoms of such
mental disorders as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression, anxiety,
panic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Electroconvulsive treatment (ECT) is another biomedical treatment that can help
some patients. It is generally reserved for patients with severe mental illnesses
who are unresponsive to or unable to tolerate medications or other treatments.
While ECT is most commonly indicated in the treatment of major depression,
often with psychosis (delusions or hallucinations), it is also used in selected cases
of schizophrenia. Severe reduction in food and fluid intake with little physical
movement (catatonia), or overwhelming suicidal ideation, where urgency of
response is important, are reasons for considering ECT as treatment of choice.
Modern methods of administering ECT use low "doses" of electric shock to the
brain along with general anesthesia and muscle relaxants to minimize the risk and
unpleasantness to patients.
Psychotherapy is accomplished through a series of face-to-face discussions in
which a therapist helps person to talk about, define, and resolve personal
problems that are troubling. Psychotherapies generally appear to be more
effective and appropriate than medications or ECT for less severe forms of
Short-term psychotherapy, lasting for several weeks or months, is used when the
problem seems to result from a stressful life event such as a death in the family,
divorce, or physical illness. The goal of the therapist is to help the patient resolve
the problem as quickly as possible. Often this takes only a few visits. Long-term
psychotherapy, lasting from several months to several years, emphasizes the study
of underlying problems that started in childhood.
The following is a list of a few types of psychotherapy:
Psychodynamic psychotherapy, which may be either long- or short-term,
examines important relationships and experiences from early childhood to the
present in an effort to analyze and change unsettling or destructive behaviors and
to resolve emotional problems. One form of psychodynamic psychotherapy is
psychoanalysis, a long-term, intensive therapy that emphasizes how the patient's
unconscious motivations and early patterns of resolving issues are important
influences in his or her present actions and feelings.
Interpersonal therapy focuses on the patient's current life and relationships
within the family, social, and work environments.
Family therapy involves discussions and problemsolving sessions with every
member of a family-sometimes with the entire group, sometimes with individuals.
Couple therapy aims to develop a more rewarding relationship and minimize
problems through understanding how individual conflicts get expressed in the
Group therapy involves a small group of people with similar problems who, with
the guidance of a therapist, discuss individual issues and help each other with
Play therapy is a technique used for establishing communication and resolving
problems with young children.
Cognitive therapy aims to identify and correct distorted thinking patterns that
can lead to troublesome feelings and behaviors. Cognitive therapy is often
combined effectively with behavioral therapy.
Behavioral therapy uses learning principles to change troublesome thinking
patterns and behaviors systematically. The individual can learn specific skills to
obtain rewards and satisfaction. Such an approach may involve the cooperation of
important persons in the individual's life to give praise and attention to desirable
changes. Behavioral therapy includes an array of methods such as stress
management, biofeedback, and relaxation training.
Some treatments, called "adjunctive," are used in
combination with other therapies, and sometimes they are used alone. They
include occupational, recreational, or creative therapies, as well as some that
focus on special education. A mental health professional can help a client find the
kind of therapy, or combination of therapies, that is best suited to his or her
Rehabilitation Services- Community Support Programs
Many individuals with severe mental illness find it difficult to work, learn, socialize,
and live independently outside a controlled setting. To help in these matters,
community support programs offer rehabilitation services, either through
freestanding programs that are similar to clubs, or through mental health centers.
These agencies offer a variety of activities to assist clients in learning skills that will
help them to live and work independently and productively in the community. For
information on community support programs, contact your local or State mental
The Helping Professionals:
Helping professionals work in a variety of settings, such as mental health centers,
outpatient clinics, private and group practice, general hospitals, psychiatric
hospitals, nursing homes, jails, and prisons. They also work in residential
treatment centers, partial care organizations, family or social service agencies, and
the psychiatric departments of university medical centers or teaching hospitals.
Who They Are--What They Do
A psychiatrist is a medical doctor who specializes in mental disorders, is licensed
to practice medicine, and has completed a year of internship and 3 years of
specialty training. A boardcertified psychiatrist has, in addition, practiced for at
least 2 years and passed the written and oral examinations of the American Board
of Psychiatry and Neurology. Psychiatrists can evaluate and diagnose all types of
mental disorders, carry out biomedical treatments and psychotherapy, and work
with psychological problems associated with medical disorders. Child
psychiatrists specialize in working with children; geriatric psychiatrists concentrate
on helping older people.
Psychologists who conduct psychotherapy and work with individuals, groups, or
families to resolve problems generally are called clinical psychologists, counseling
psychologists, or school psychologists. They work in many settings--for example,
mental health centers, hospitals and clinics, schools, employee assistance
programs, and private practice. In most States, a licensed clinical 19 psychologist
has completed a doctoral degree from a university program with specialized
training and experience requirements and has successfully completed a
professional licensure examination.
The field of psychology also includes those who specialize in such areas as testing,
community organization, industrial relations, and laboratory research.
Psychiatric nursing is a specialized area of professional nursing practice that is
concerned with prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of mental health-related
problems. These nurses are registered professional nurses who have advanced
academic degrees at the master's degree level or above. They conduct individual,
family, and group therapy and also work in mental health consultation, education,
Psychiatric (or clinical) social workers have advanced degrees in social work,
have completed a field supervision program, and are licensed/certified. In addition
to individual, family, and group counseling and psychotherapy, they are trained in
client-centered advocacy. This includes information, referral, direct intervention
with governmental and civic agencies, and expansion of community resources.
Mental Health Counselors
A clinical mental health counselor provides professional counseling services that
involve psychotherapy, human development, learning theory, and group dynamics
to help individuals, couples, and families. The promotion and enhancement of
healthy, satisfying lifestyles are the goals of mental health counselors, whether the
20 services are rendered in a mental health center, business, private practice, or
other community agency. Clinical mental health counselors have earned at least a
master's degree, had supervised experience, and passed a national examination
before they can be certified by the National Board for Certified Counselors, Inc.
Case Managers and Outreach Workers
These individuals assist persons with severe mental illness, including some who
may be homeless, to obtain the services they need to live in the community. Most
persons with severe mental illness need medical care, social services, arid
assistance from a variety of agencies, including those dealing with housing, Social
Security, vocational rehabilitation, and mental health. Because such services are
fragmented in many areas, case managers provide a critical function to monitor a
person's needs and assure that appropriate agencies get involved. In many
instances they also act as advocates for the client. Case managers can be nurses,
social workers, or mental health workers and can be associated with mental
health centers, psychosocial rehabilitation programs, or other agencies. Case
management and outreach services are frequently provided by teams that may
include people who are recovering from a mental illness who function as peer
counselors, case management aides, or outreach workers.
Mental Health Research and Services
The core mission of the National Institute of Mental Health is to understand, treat,
and prevent mental illness. Research into the kinds of mental health services that
will support this mission plays an important role. The Center for Mental Health
Services provides national leadership in mental health care delivery and policy
development to facilitate accessible, comprehensive, and quality mental health and
support services. The Institute and Center, in cooperation with consumer and
family groups, professional organizations, and other Federal and State agencies,
work to advance the application of scientific findings and practicebased
knowledge to improve the range of effective prevention and treatment services.
If you believe that you, or someone you know, might benefit from the services of
a mental health professional, mental health center, or one of the organizations
described in this brochure, don't hesitate to take advantage of these useful
For referral to a physician, psychiatrist, or psychologist contact your local medical
bureau or local department of mental health listed in the telephone book. And
remember that your own physician or clergy is usually aware of places in your
community to get help.
The following are some excellent information sources:
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
3615 Wisconsin Ave., NW
Washington, DC 20016
(202) 966-7300;(202) 966-2891 FAX
American Medical Association
515 North State St.
Chicago, IL 60610
(312) 464-5000; (312) 464-4184 FAX
American Psychiatric Association
1400 K St. NW, Suite 1101
Washington, DC 20005
(202) 682-6000; (202) 682-6341 FAX
American Psychological Association
750 First St. NE
Washington, DC 20002-4242
(202) 336-5500; (202) 336-5905 FAX
For psychiatric nurses:
American Nurses' Association
600 Maryland Ave. SW, Suite 100W
Washington, DC 20024
(202) 651-7000; (202) 561-7001 FAX
American Psychiatric Nurses' Association
1200 19th St., NW, Suite 300
Washington, DC 20036
For social workers:
National Association of Social Workers
750 First St. NE, Suite 700
Washington, DC 20002-4241
(202) 408-8600; 1-800-638-8799
(202) 336-8310 FAX
For other mental health practitioners:
American Mental Health Counselors Association
P.O. Drawer 22370
Alexandria, VA 22304
(703) 823-9800 ext. 383
(703) 751-1696 FAX 23
American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy
1100 17th St. NW, l0th Floor
Washington, DC 20036
(202) 452-0109; 1-800-374-2638
(202) 223-2329 FAX
National Board for Certified Counselors, Inc.
3-D Terrace Way
Greensboro, NC 27403
(910) 547-0607; (910) 547-0017 FAX
For psychosocial rehabilitation programs:
National Rehabilitation Association
633 S. Washington St.
Alexandria, VA 22314
(703) 836-0850; (703) 836-0848 FAX
International Association of Psychosocial Rehabilitation
10025 Governor Warfield Pkwy, Suite 301
Columbia, MD 21044-3357
(410) 730-7190; (410) 730-5965 FAX
For State mental health centers and programs:
National Association of State
Mental Health Program Directors
66 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 302
Alexandria, VA 22314-1591
(703) 739-9333; (703) 548-9517 FAX
For protection and advocacy:
Judge David L. Bazelon
Center for Mental Health Law
1101 Fifteenth St., NW, Suite 1212
Washington, DC 20005
(202) 467-5730; (202) 223-0409 FAX
National Association of Protection and Advocacy Systems
900 2nd St. NE, Suite 211
Washington, DC 20002
(202) 408-9514; (202)408-9520 FAX
For outpatient programs and mental health service facilities:
American Association for Partial Hospitalization, Inc.
901 N. Washington St., Suite 600
Alexandria, VA 22314-1535
(703) 836-2274;(703) 836-0083 FAX
National Association of Psychiatric Health Systems
1319 F St. NW, Suite 1000
Washington, DC 20004
(202) 393-6700;(202) 783-6041 FAX
National Community Mental Healthcare Council
12300 Twinbrook Pkwy., Suite 320
Rockville, MD 20852
(301) 984-6200; (301) 881-7159 FAX
There are also a number of consumer advocacy and support organizations. The
underlying philosophy of these organizations is that the best helpers are often
those who have experienced similar problems. These groups typically provide
emotional support and practical help for' dealing with problems that their members
Organizations that have chapters in many communities, or can provide referrals
and/or educational materials, are:
919 North Michigan Ave. Suite 1000
Chicago, Illinois 60611
(312) 335-1110 FAX
Anxiety Disorders Association of
6000 Executive Blvd. Suite 513
Rockville, MD 20852
(301) 231-7392 FAX
Association for Advancement of Behavior
305 7th Ave.
New York, NY 10001
Federation of Families for Children's Mental Health
1021 Prince St.
Alexandria, VA 22314-2971
(703) 836-1040 FAX
National Alliance for the Mentally Ill
2101 Wilson Blvd. Suite 302
(703) 524-9094 FAX
National Anxiety Foundation
3135 Custer Dr.
Lexington, KY 40517-4001
National Depressive and Manic Depressive Association
730 N. Franklin Suite 501
Chicago, IL 60610
(312) 642-7243 FAX
National Mental Health Association
1021 Prince St.
Alexandria, VA 22314-2971
(703) 684-5968 FAX
Pathways to Promise
St. Louis, MO 63139-1494
(314) 644-8834 FAX
802 North Dearborn St.
Chicago, IL 60610
(312) 337-5756 FAX
There are many self-help or mutual support groups that
provide assistance in particular areas such as phobias, panic, bereavement,
obsessive-compulsive disorder, anorexia and bulimia, as well as other disorders
such as HIV, dementia, AIDS, cancer, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's, and many
others. Due to space limitations, we are unable to list them all here. Information
about self-help groups can be obtained from:
American Self-Help Clearinghouse
St. Claires-Riverside Medical Center
25 Pocono Rd.
Denville, NJ 07834
(800)367-6724 (inside NJ)
(201) 625-8848 FAX
National Self-Help Clearinghouse
Graduate School and
University Center City
University of New York
25 West 43rd St. Room 620
New York, NY 10036
(212) 642-1956 FAX
Self-Help Clearinghouse of the Greater Washington Area
7630 Little River
Annandale, VA 22003
(703) 642-0803 FAX
Two organizations engage in a variety of technical assistance and information
sharing activities. They are:
National Empowerment Center
20 Ballard Rd.
Lawrence, MA 01843-1018
National Mental Health Consumers' Self-Help Clearinghouse
311 South Juniper St. Suite 1000
Philadelphia, PA 19107
(215) 735-6082 ext.
(215) 735-8307 FAX
This information was revised by Martha Strock, staff member in the Information Resources and Inquiries Branch, Office of Scientific Information, NIMH.